ORE DEPOSITS OF INDIA
Based on India’s Mineral Resources, Third Edition by S. Krishnaswamy
and R. K. Sinha, Oxford & IBH Publ. Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi,
1988, www.wikipedia.com and other websites.
| See also the section on IRON ORE
in “Mineral Specification” section on this website
Iron is one of the
most indispensable metal to man and all the modern industry is dependent
on its supply and availability. Therefore, it is not surprising
to find that an iron and steel industry is of basic importance to
a country’s economy. In modern times, this heavy industry
is rightly considered as an index of nation’s prosperity,
the relative economic strength and might of a country is reflected
in the possession of large and integrated iron and steel works,
which is also a measure of the political power and prestige which
that country enjoys. Next to aluminum, iron is the most abundant
mineral in the earth’s crust. However, pure iron being a soft
mineral, it took man sometime to learn the art of controlling the
carbon content. This necessity did not arise till steam engines
came in to vogue. Further, for iron manufacture by the conventional
method, metallurgical coal is necessary and, unfortunately, the
latter is in short supply in India.
The two important ore minerals of iron are magnetite
and hematite. Magnetite is also known as magnetic iron ore because
it is easily attracted by a magnet. It is a heavy black mineral
with metallic luster. Hematite which is the ore mineral most favored
for iron smelting purposes in modern times is a steel-gray to iron-
black colored mineral which is as hard as magnetite (hardness=5.5
to 6.5) but slightly less heavy (usually specific gravity varies
from 5.0 to 5.3). It has also a metallic luster.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon. It is produced in a two stage
process. First, the iron ore is reduced or smelted with coke and
limestone in a blast furnace, producing molten iron which is either
cast into pig iron or carried to the next stage as molten iron.
In the second stage, known as steelmaking, impurities such as sulfur,
phosphorus, and excess carbon are removed and alloying elements
such as manganese, nickel, chromium and vanadium added to produce
the exact steel required.
Steel mills turn molten steel into blooms, ingots, slabs and sheet
through casting, hot rolling and cold rolling.
|An integrated steel plant has all the functions
for primary steel production:
| • Iron
making (conversion of ore to liquid iron),
Steel making (conversion of pig iron to steel),
bloom casting (production of large blocks of steel),
roughing rolling / billet rolling (reducing size of blocks)
• product rolling (finished shapes).
The principle raw
materials for an integrated plant are iron ore, limestone, and coal
(or coke). These materials are charged in batches into a blast furnace
where the iron compounds in the ore give up excess oxygen and become
liquid iron. At intervals of a few hours, the accumulated liquid
iron is tapped from the blast furnace and either cast into pig iron
or directed to other vessels for further steelmaking operations.
Historically the Bessemer process was a break-through in the production
of economical steel, but , in recent years, the technology of iron
and steel making has advanced so much that even non-coking coals
and low-grade iron ores could be utilized and smelted in a low-shaft
blast furnace for making pig iron. Even for steel making we have
the modern process such as the basic oxygen furnace process and
many other direct processes also in addition to electric smelting
Therefore, it would no longer be an ideal dream,
or an unrealistic endeavor, to think of establishing an iron and
steel industry in any country. The great example set by Japan is
before us. With no resources of iron ores and limited or scanty
resources of metallurgical coal, it is now the second largest iron
and steel producing country in the world.
Molten steel is cast into large blocks called "blooms".
During the casting process various methods are used, such as addition
of aluminum, so that impurities in the steel float to the surface
where they can be cut off the finished bloom.
Because of the energy cost and structural stress associated with
heating and cooling a blast furnace, typically these primary steelmaking
vessels will operate on a continuous production campaign of several
years duration. Even during periods of low steel demand, it may
not be feasible to let the blast furnace grow cold, though some
adjustment of the production rate is possible.
Integrated plants are large facilities typically only economical
to build in +2,000,000 tonnes per year annual capacity. Final products
made by an integrated plant are usually large structural sections,
heavy plate, strip, wire rod, railway rails, and occasionally long
products such as bars and pipe.
A major environmental hazard associated with integrated steel mills
is the pollution produced in the manufacture of coke, which is an
essential intermediate product in the reduction of iron ore in a
Integrated plants may also adopt some of the processes used in mini-mills,
such as arc furnaces and direct casting, to reduce production costs.
World integrated steel production capacity is at or close to world
demand, so competition between suppliers results in only the most
efficient producers remaining viable. However, due to the large
employment of integrated plants, often governments will financially
assist an obsolescent facility rather than take the risk of having
thousands of workers thrown out of jobs. Such measures in products
then sold in international trade lead to allegations of dumping.
|ORIGIN AND CLASSIFICATION OF IRON
|Iron ores may be classified in to six groups
according to their mode of origin and occurrence:
1. Igneous- Magmatic segregation
2. Contact metamorphic
3. Lode deposits
5. Bedded or sedimentary deposits
6. Residual and superficial deposits, including laterite.
| Banded hematite-quartzite
|Octahedral crystals of magnetite,
|| Cubic crystals of pyrite, Rajasthan
|IRON ORES OF INDIA
The iron ores of
India can be divided in to three major groups according to the origin.
The first and most important group comprises the banded ferruginous
formations of Pre-Cambrian age. The second group consists of sedimentary
iron ores of sideritic or limonitic composition and the third group
consists of lateritic ore derived from the sub-aerial alteration
of iron-bearing rocks, such as gneisses, schists, basic lavas, etc.,
under tropical conditions, resulting in the concentration of hydrated
oxides of iron often associated with those of aluminium and manganese.
Lateritic caps are wide spread in India.
In India the leading producers of iron ore are
Chhattisgarh, Orissa, Goa, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh.
|RESERVES AND PRODUCTION & DISPATCHES
OF IRON ORES IN INDIA
As per the Survey
conducted by the Indian Bureau of Mines (IBM) in April 2000, India
had 9919 million tonnes of recoverable reserves of hematite and
3546 million tonnes of magnetite. Zone A comprising of Bihar, Jharkhand
and Orissa is the largest haematite ore bearing zone in the country,
consisting mainly of medium grade and low grade ore (iron content
65% and below). Chhattisgarh has the largest quantity of high-grade
ore reserve (iron content greater than 65%) in the country. Karnataka
has the highest reserves of magnetite ore followed by Andhra Pradesh
and Goa. The details of recoverable reserves of haematite is as
|Recoverable Reserve of Haematite
as on 1.4.2000
||Zone / State
||High Grade ore (Fe+65%)
||Medium grade ore (Fe 62-65%)
||Low grade ore ( Fe below 62%)
||Other / Not known
||Blue dust Black Iron
|Production and Dispatches:
Production of Iron
Ore (including concentrates) during the year 2003-04 is estimated
at 100.6 million tonnes as against 97.0 million tonnes in the previous
year. State wise production figures indicate that Karnataka continues
to be the leading producing State accounting for 24.25million tonnes
(25.1%) of the total production during 2003-04 followed by Orissa
with 23.76 million tonnes (23.6%), Chhattisgarh with 20.04 million
tonnes (19.9%), Goa with 17.0 million tonnes (16.9%) and Jharkhand
with 13.61 million tonnes (13.5%), The remaining production is from
Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Rajasthan. Dispatches
of Iron Ore (including concentrates) for 2003-04 are estimated at
101.8 million tonnes.
Production and dispatches of Iron Ore from 2001-02
to 2003-04 are given below (Source Indian Bureau of Mines, Nagpur):
| (P) Provisional
MT - Millon Tonnes
|IMPORTANT IRON ORE DEPOSITS OF
Iron ore is the basic
resource for a nation’s development. Iron is described as
the backbone of civilization. As the major raw material for the
iron and steel industry, iron ore is found in four varieties viz.,
Magnetite, Limonite, Hematite, Siderite. 20% of the iron ore deposits
of the world are found in India. Major iron ore deposits of India
are given in the Table given below:
Keonjhar, Mayurbhanj Districts
|MAP SHOWING IMPORTANT IRON ORE
DEPOSITS OF INDIA
Chhattisgarh is the
richest State in terms of mineral wealth, with 28 varieties of major
minerals, including diamond. Chhattisgarh along with two other Indian
States has almost all the coal deposits in India, which led to its
‘power hub’ strategy. All the tin ore is in Chhattisgarh.
A fifth of iron ore in the country is here, and one of the best
quality iron ore deposits in the world is found in the Bailadila
mines in south Chhattisgarh from where it is exported to Japan.
Rich deposits of Bauxite, Limestone, Dolomite and Corundum are found
in the State. The State is lucky to have large deposits of coal,
iron ore and limestone in close proximity, making it the ideal location
for the lowest cost of production.
Bailadila range of mines is perched on the southern
tip of Chhattisgarh in Dantewada District. The range comprises of
14 iron ore deposits rising to a height of 1260 meters above mean
sea level. Bailadila lies in the Survey of India toposheet no. 65F/2
within latitude 18o32'32" North and 19o36'5" North and
longitude 81o13' & 81o14'30" East.
"Bailadila" ranges of hills derive its name from the shape
of hills. As the hills of the range look like 'the hump of an ox'
it's named so by the native inhabitants of this place.
Iron Ore is available in Bailadila area in heavy quantity. Bailadila
Iron Ore deposit is renowned in the world for both its quantity
as well as quality. The Iron percentage in the Ore is between 60
to 68, which makes Bailadila one among the world's top quality Iron
Ore. There are 14 deposits of Iron Ore with an approximate quantity
of 3000 Lakh Tonnes. National Mineral Development Corporation Limited
is involved in the mining related activities of these Iron Deposits.
The association of very rich and extensive iron ores with hematite
quartzite in the Bailadila range has first been made known to the
world between 1898-1900 by Mr. P. N. Bose who was the first to do
geological mapping of this region. A systematic geological mapping
was done later between 1932-38 through which 14 iron ore bearing
hills have been chalked out from the range. In view of the urgency
of assessment of the mineral potentialities of this region, a separate
circle of GSI was formed in December 1958, and in the same year
IBM was assigned the job of detailed proving of some of these deposits.
NMDC stepped in the area in the later half of 1961 and since then
it is actively engaged in extraction, development and exploration
of many deposits of the ranges, namely Deposit-14,5,4 and also 11C
The Commercial discovery of Bailadila dates back to 1955-56 when
Prof. Euemura of Japanese Steel Mills Association, studying the
memories of Geological Survey of India, drew the attention of the
Japanese Steel Mills to the richness of the vast deposits of iron
ore and its proximity to the Eastern Coast of India. Later an agreement
was signed with the Japanese Steel Mills in 1960. An approval of
the project report prepared by NMDC has been given in 1964 and the
Mine Plant has been inaugurated in November 1968.
NMDC is presently operating three iron ore mines vi.z Bailadila
Iron Ore Deposit No 14 (commissioned in the year 1968), Bailadila
Iron Ore Deposit No. 5 (Commissioned in January 1977) and Bailadila
Iron Ore Deposit No. 11-c (Commissioned in June 1987), out of the
14 identified Iron Ore Deposits of the Bailadila range (dantewada.nic.in/nmdc.html).
The estimated reserve of iron ores is about 2336 million tonnes.
Bailadila also holds an estimated quantity of 680 lakh tonnes of
"Blue Dust", Petetoigation Plant is under consideration
In the Durg districts, the more important deposits
of hematite ore are in Dhalli Rajhara; here, rich iron ore deposits
are found near Jharandalli and Konde Kasa. The average iron content
of the ore is 68 to 69%. The reserves here are estimated to be over
286 million tonnes.
On the border of Durg and Bastar districts G.S.I
has discovered sixteen more promising deposits in the Kalwar-Kauchar
region. Many of the high grade ore are merely the western extension
of the Dhalli-Rajhara iron ore deposits. Here both massive and laminated
types of hematite occur in association with the banded hematite
quartzites. The Kauchar deposit is a single ore-body on a N-S trending
ridge (? 2206) -Kauchar Dongri; it has a strike length of 3.2 km
and average width of 200 meters. The ore is of steel grey to brownish
grey colour. The average iron content ranges from 55 to 69%.
There are also some amounts of poor grade ore containing
less than 55% iron content especially of the earthy varieties. The
sp. gravity of the ore is between 4.1 and 4.9 and the phosphorous
content of the richer ores (both massive and laminated) is around
0.01% while the mica content is between 0.5 and 2.52% and the sulfur
content only in traces.
It is a promising deposit and since its size, quality
and easy accessibility are important factors, it is necessary to
prove the correct dimensions of this deposit especially in depth,
as it is believed that this iron ore body may reasonably be expected
to extend down to a depth of 100 meters at least. In other parts
of the Durg district, in a hill about 1.6 km, west of Bandhe a 8.8
km long band of hematite is found and another in the Dondi Lohara
area. Besides these deposits, lateritic iron ores are present west
of Kukral and near Borla, Katalulkassa, Worar and other places and
float ore is also found.
In Orissa, the iron
ore deposits occur in the districts of Cuttack, Keonjhar and Sundergarh,
Mayurbhanj, Sambalpur, Koraput and Dhenkanal. Of these, the Keonjhar
deposit is important. The principal ore is hematite with the iron
content ranging from 55 to 69 per cent.
The iron ores are associated with both the banded
hematite quartzite (BHQ) and banded hematite jasper. In this State,
the most important deposits containing large reserves of high grade
ore occur in the Bonai range of hills running through Keonjhar and
Sundergarh districts and comprises the well known iron ore deposits
of Banspani, Barsua, Bichhakani, Bolani, Joda east, Malangtoli,
Makaranacha, Murgabera, Pirpokri, Rajabasa and Thakurani. Mainly
steel grey hematite is found in the Malangtoli block in Keonjhar
Between the Talpona
river (Naibhaga) in the NW and Salginim in SE, iron ore and manganese
deposits closely associated with the pink phyllitic horizon are
found in a 95 km long and 2km wide belt. These pink phyllites resemble
the shales in the well known Singhbhum-Keonjhar-Bonai iron ore region.
It is a remarkable fact that the iron ore deposits decrease in quality
and quantity as one proceeds from north to south in Goa. Thus, near
Nuem and Cananquinim banded hematite magnetite quartzites occur
as lensoid bodies while the manganese bearing cherts and quartzite
occur in narrow bands.
There are also small isolated deposits along the
sea coast near Betul and Galogibaga. The richest iron ore deposits
in Goa are found between Advalpale and the Madei river. Here massive
or bedded or powdery type of hematite is the principal ore with
some amount of magnetite, limonite and goethite. South of Costi
there are only a few small iron ore deposits usually of poor quality.
According to A.R. Gokulam of the G.S.I., generally,
the iron ore deposits occupy the crests and slopes of the hills,
hillocks and mounds and higher the hill and steeper the slope, the
better is the size of the deposit and the tenor of the ore. The
iron ore concentration is also maximum at the apical portions of
the hills which are also often the culminations of minor cross folds.
Generally, the surface ore is hard and lumpy followed
in depth by the softer, friable and powdery ores consisting mainly
of blue dust. The massive ore varies in colour from cherry red to
steel grey and the iron content is around 63 % and sp. Gravity is
4.2. This type of ore is, however of only sporadic occurrence. The
bedded ore is also of a cherry red to steel grey colour but its
sp. gravity is only 3 to .4 and the iron content ranges from 59
to 62 %. A mixed type of ore comprised bands of hematite mixed with
laterite is commonly noticed at the surface in many localities but
the sp. gravity of the ore is only 2.5 to 3.0 and the iron content
between 45 and 50%.
Usually, between the hard lumpy ore at the surface
and the powdery ore in the depth there is a thin zone containing
laminated ore. Below this zone of powdery ore usually called ‘Blue
Dust’. The sp. gravity of the latter is only 2.8 to 3.0 the
iron content is rather high ranging from 63 to 67 %. As such, in
Goa the powdery ore is usually richer in iron content as compared
to the hard lumpy ores occurring near the surface.
According to A.R. Gokuam there are more than thirty
important iron ore deposits in Goa which on the basis of their nature,
mode of occurrence and origin could be grouped into eight major
types such as:
(a) Bicholim-Pale type
(b) Sacroda-Pissurlem type
(c) Codli-Sigao type
(d) Costi-Quirlapale type
(e) Barazan-Viliena-Motto type
(f) Rivona-Columba-Canvorem type
(g) Netorlim type
(h) Betul-Nuem type.
The revised estimates of iron ore reserves in Goa
are placed at about 884 million tons.
In Karnataka, there
are two main types of iron deposits, the lateroid hematitic iron
ore concentrations with minor limonite and goethite and magnetite
ore deposits. Workable deposits of iron chiefly hematite carrying
55 to 63 percent of iron content with phosphorous between 0.05 and
0.12 percent are known to occur.
Karnataka has the richest resources of iron ores of the order of
1000 million tons of Karnataka and 25000 million tons of magnetic
ores. Major deposits occur in Bellary, Chickmagalur and Chitradurga
districts. Some of the richest deposits analyzing to more than 62
per cent iron ore occur in Bellary.
|The more important districts are
of iron ore deposits
Hosepet and Sandur
hills, Kudremukh, Gangamula
on Goa border and Honavar
taluk , Dharmasthala
Of these listed,
the occurrences of iron ore in the Bellary district
are quite important. The Kudremukh deposit on the
West Coast in Chickmagalur district is also important
because it is intensively of magnetite. Kudremukh means the face
of a horse, as the profile of the mountain near Mangalore resembles
it. This is no ordinary mountain but a rich lode of iron ore. It
is one of the largest iron ore deposits of the world and the largest
in Asia. Average daily production of ore is 70,000 tons.
In the Bellary district, within the bounds of the
former princely State o Sandur, high grade hematite ores occur in
banded hematite quartzites. The ores occur on the tops of a series
of ridges. The important sources are Donimalai, Devadari, Kumaraswamy-Kammadheruvu,
Kanavehalli, Ramandrug and Timmappanagudi ranges. In Donimalai,
laminated hematite ores (biscuity ores) are dominant followed by
massive ores. Some amount of specular iron ore, martite and magnetite
are also present.
According to G.S.I. the Donimalai deposit is estimated to contain
151.3 million tonnes of ores with Fe content 64 percent and the
Ramandrug deposit about 212 million tonnes of iron ors with 62.3
to 62.5 percent iron content while 181.9 million tonnes of iron
ores with 64 percent Fe content has been estimated from ore zone
‘C’ of Kumaraswamy deposit.
In the Chickmagalur district, we have one of the
most important deposits of iron ore in the Bababudan hills. The
chain of hills, shaped like a horse-shoe is about 22 km wide in
a east-west direction and 19 km in north-south direction. On the
tops of this chain of hills the iron ores, some hundreds of meters
thick, occur in discontinuous masses. One of them is the well known
Kemmangundi ore field. In the Kalhattigiri region, in the southeastern
portion of this chain of hills, the iron ores cover a very wide
area. Much of the ore exposed is of high grade, chiefly hematite
with some limonite. This ore shows the following range in composition:
In the Maland area
of this district between Kudremukh and Gangamoola extensive deposits
of magnetite ore known to occur at Mathole, Gangrikal and Aroli.
Kudremukh in the Aroli Gangamoola range of Western Ghat in Karnataka
is known for its wild beauties. The highest peak of this mountain
range resembles the face of a horse. Discovery of iron ore deposit
in these hill ranges was made by Late Sampath Iyengar, a geologist
in the year 1913. The iron ore deposit in Kudremukh was estimated
to be around 700 million tonnes. In 1960s National Mineral Development
Corporation undertook the preliminary prospecting and investigation
work and made an assessment of mineable reserve of 630 million tonnes.
Kudremukh deposit containing 33 percent of Fe is amenable for beneficiation.
The deposit has been opened at Malleshwara situated in Mudigin taluk.
This deposit is situated 13 km NNE of Kudremukh. The deposit extends
for a strike length of 5km. It was developed under India-Iran agreement
whereby India was to supply 7.5 million of concentrates analyzing
66.5 percent Fe (tolerance limit+64 %Fe) for a period of 25 years.
Due to outbreak of Iran-Iraq War, Iran withdrew the contract although
the mine has achieved operational capacity. There is a arrangement
to transfer concentrate in slurry for a distance of 66.8 km through
pipe line system to Mangalore port.
Kudremukh deposits are known to be one of the largest deposits in
the world. On one deposit alone where the mining is carried out
at present, reserves of 630 million tonnes of weathered ore and
450 million tonnes of primary ore have been found. Besides, there
are other deposits in the vicinity namely Nellibeedu, Gangkrikal,
Bababudan etc., with probable reserve of 3000 million tonnes (www.pib.nic.in).
Iron ore deposits
in Maharashtra occur in Chandrapur, Gadchiroli, Bhandara and Sindhudurg
districts. They are mostly concentrated in the Vidarbha region where
ore bodies occur as lenses in banded hematite quartzites belonging
to ‘Iron Ore Series’. The iron minerals are hematite
In Chandrapur district iron ore deposits occur
at Asola, Lohara, Ratanpur and Pipalgaon localities. Out of these
the Lohara deposit is the most important followed by Asola and Pipalgaon.
In Gadchiroli district iron ore deposits occur in three parallel
hill ranges i) Surajagarh hill range, ii) Damkod Wadvi hill range
iii) Bhamragarh hill range. Several deposits are present but the
deposit occurring in Wureea hill range is very important in nature.
The Wureea hill deposit is in the form of a lenticular body associated
with banded hematite quartzite and ferruginous phyllites belonging
to ‘Iron Ore Series’. The ore which is predominantly
hematite, occur as massive, laminated, soft and porous type.
In Gondia tahsil of Bhandara district near Khursipur
and Ambetalao titaniferous magnetite ore body containing vanadium
occurs in metamorphosed basic and ultrabasic rocks of Amgaon Group.
Ore is banded, fine grained, grayish in color and is composed of
brown, bluish to dark black crystalline magnetite with minor amounts
of sulfides, hematite and goethite. In Sindhudurg district there
are several localities where iron ore deposits are found to occur.
The ore bodies are associated with Banded hematite quartzites, ferruginous
quartzite and ferruginous phyllites which are mostly below thick
cover of laterite. Ore from this district is exported to other countries
(G.G. Deshpande, Geology of Maharashtra, Geological Society
of India, Bangalore, 1998).
|6. ANDHRA PRADESH
In Andhra Pradesh
the iron ore deposits are mainly confined to Rayadurg area in Anantpur
district, Bayaram in Khammam district, Gani-Ramallokota and Veldurthi
areas in Kurnool district, Gandrai area in Krishna district and
around Konijedu in Prakasam district. Dharwar, Cuddapah and Gondwanas
are the main units with which iron ore of the States are associated.
There are minor lateritic ores derived from Deccan Trap.
In Adilabad district iron-ore occur associated
with Upper Gondwana rocks in Sirpur areas whereas banded hematite
quartzites are reported from Chityala, Kallada and other places.
In Anantpur and Chittoor districts iron-ore occurs associated with
the Dharwars. In Khammam and Warangal districts iron ores are associated
with Pakhals and also Dharwar strata.
In Krishna and Khammam districts float ores is
collected whereas in Kurnool district there are rich hematite concentrations.
Magnetite ores through banded hematite quartzites contribute the
main ore in Prakasam and East Godavari districts (P.K. Ramam,
Geology of Andhra Pradesh, Geological Society of India, Bangalore,
A Note on Mittal Steel Company N.V. Website
Mittal Steel Company N.V. the world's largest steel producer by
volume, and the second largest after Arcelor by turnover. CEO Lakshmi
Mittal's family owns 88% of it; Lakshmi Mittal is the fifth wealthiest
person in the world. Mittal Steel is based in Rotterdam, in the
Netherlands but managed from London by Mittal and his son Aditya.
It was formed when Ispat International N.V. acquired LNM Holdings
N.V. (both were already controlled by Lakshmi Mittal) and merged
with International Steel Group Inc. (the remnants of Bethlehem Steel,
Republic Steel and LTV Steel) in 2005.
|• 1989 Acquisition of Iron &
Steel Company of Trinidad & Tobago
• 1992 Acquisition of Sibalsa
• 1994 Acquisition of Sidbec-Dosco
1995 Acquisition of Hamburger Stahlwerke which formed Ispat International
Ltd. and Ispat Shipping formed. Acquisition of Karmet
• 1997 Ispat International NV goes
• 1998 Acquisition of Inland Steel Company
• 1999 Acquisition of Unimétal
• 2001 Acquisition of ALFASID > Acquisition of Sidex
• 2002 Business assistance agreement signed with Iscor
• 2003 Acquisition of Nova Hut
• 2004 Acquisition
of Polskie Huty Stali, Acquisition of BH Steel, Acquisition of Macedonian
facilities from Balkan Steel, Creation of Mittal
Steel and proposed acquisition of International Steel
2005 Investment of $9 billion in Jharkhand, India announced
• 2006 Acquisition of Arcelor announced
It employs 179,000
people. Revenue for 2005 was US$28.132 billion (the accounts are
prepared in United States dollars). It shipped 49.178 million tonnes
of steel during 2005, ahead of Arcelor (45 Mt in 2004), and Nippon
Steel (31.3 Mt in 2004). Arcelor however tops Mittal Steel in terms
of turnover with an annual turnover of over $37 billion in 2004.
Mittal Steel's unique business model helped the company create profitable
business in countries that were not regarded as premier investment
destinations. It buys loss making or under-producing steel companies,
and then turns them around by cost cutting and layoffs, thereby
creating leaner and more competitive companies.
The company has production units in 17 countries: China, Indonesia,
United States, Mexico, Canada, France, Germany, Poland, Romania,
Algeria, South Africa, Czech republic, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Republic
of Macedonia, Trinidad and Tobago, Kazakhstan and Ukraine.