IRON ORE DEPOSITS OF INDIA

Based on India’s Mineral Resources, Third Edition by S. Krishnaswamy and R. K. Sinha, Oxford & IBH Publ. Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, 1988, www.wikipedia.com and other websites.
See also the section on IRON ORE in “Mineral Specification” section on this website
 
INTRODUCTION
Iron is one of the most indispensable metal to man and all the modern industry is dependent on its supply and availability. Therefore, it is not surprising to find that an iron and steel industry is of basic importance to a country’s economy. In modern times, this heavy industry is rightly considered as an index of nation’s prosperity, the relative economic strength and might of a country is reflected in the possession of large and integrated iron and steel works, which is also a measure of the political power and prestige which that country enjoys. Next to aluminum, iron is the most abundant mineral in the earth’s crust. However, pure iron being a soft mineral, it took man sometime to learn the art of controlling the carbon content. This necessity did not arise till steam engines came in to vogue. Further, for iron manufacture by the conventional method, metallurgical coal is necessary and, unfortunately, the latter is in short supply in India.

The two important ore minerals of iron are magnetite and hematite. Magnetite is also known as magnetic iron ore because it is easily attracted by a magnet. It is a heavy black mineral with metallic luster. Hematite which is the ore mineral most favored for iron smelting purposes in modern times is a steel-gray to iron- black colored mineral which is as hard as magnetite (hardness=5.5 to 6.5) but slightly less heavy (usually specific gravity varies from 5.0 to 5.3). It has also a metallic luster.

Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon. It is produced in a two stage process. First, the iron ore is reduced or smelted with coke and limestone in a blast furnace, producing molten iron which is either cast into pig iron or carried to the next stage as molten iron. In the second stage, known as steelmaking, impurities such as sulfur, phosphorus, and excess carbon are removed and alloying elements such as manganese, nickel, chromium and vanadium added to produce the exact steel required.

Steel mills turn molten steel into blooms, ingots, slabs and sheet through casting, hot rolling and cold rolling.

 
Integrated plants
An integrated steel plant has all the functions for primary steel production:
     • Iron making (conversion of ore to liquid iron),
     • Steel making (conversion of pig iron to steel),
     • bloom casting (production of large blocks of steel),
     • roughing rolling / billet rolling (reducing size of blocks)
     • product rolling (finished shapes).
The principle raw materials for an integrated plant are iron ore, limestone, and coal (or coke). These materials are charged in batches into a blast furnace where the iron compounds in the ore give up excess oxygen and become liquid iron. At intervals of a few hours, the accumulated liquid iron is tapped from the blast furnace and either cast into pig iron or directed to other vessels for further steelmaking operations. Historically the Bessemer process was a break-through in the production of economical steel, but , in recent years, the technology of iron and steel making has advanced so much that even non-coking coals and low-grade iron ores could be utilized and smelted in a low-shaft blast furnace for making pig iron. Even for steel making we have the modern process such as the basic oxygen furnace process and many other direct processes also in addition to electric smelting method.

Therefore, it would no longer be an ideal dream, or an unrealistic endeavor, to think of establishing an iron and steel industry in any country. The great example set by Japan is before us. With no resources of iron ores and limited or scanty resources of metallurgical coal, it is now the second largest iron and steel producing country in the world.

Molten steel is cast into large blocks called "blooms". During the casting process various methods are used, such as addition of aluminum, so that impurities in the steel float to the surface where they can be cut off the finished bloom.

Because of the energy cost and structural stress associated with heating and cooling a blast furnace, typically these primary steelmaking vessels will operate on a continuous production campaign of several years duration. Even during periods of low steel demand, it may not be feasible to let the blast furnace grow cold, though some adjustment of the production rate is possible.

Integrated plants are large facilities typically only economical to build in +2,000,000 tonnes per year annual capacity. Final products made by an integrated plant are usually large structural sections, heavy plate, strip, wire rod, railway rails, and occasionally long products such as bars and pipe.

A major environmental hazard associated with integrated steel mills is the pollution produced in the manufacture of coke, which is an essential intermediate product in the reduction of iron ore in a blast furnace.

Integrated plants may also adopt some of the processes used in mini-mills, such as arc furnaces and direct casting, to reduce production costs.

World integrated steel production capacity is at or close to world demand, so competition between suppliers results in only the most efficient producers remaining viable. However, due to the large employment of integrated plants, often governments will financially assist an obsolescent facility rather than take the risk of having thousands of workers thrown out of jobs. Such measures in products then sold in international trade lead to allegations of dumping.

 
ORIGIN AND CLASSIFICATION OF IRON ORE DEPOSITS
Iron ores may be classified in to six groups according to their mode of origin and occurrence:

   1. Igneous- Magmatic segregation
   2. Contact metamorphic deposits
   3. Lode deposits
   4. Replacement Deposits
   5. Bedded or sedimentary deposits
   6. Residual and superficial deposits, including laterite.
Banded hematite-quartzite Banded hematite-jasper
Octahedral crystals of magnetite, Rajasthan Cubic crystals of pyrite, Rajasthan
 
IRON ORES OF INDIA
The iron ores of India can be divided in to three major groups according to the origin. The first and most important group comprises the banded ferruginous formations of Pre-Cambrian age. The second group consists of sedimentary iron ores of sideritic or limonitic composition and the third group consists of lateritic ore derived from the sub-aerial alteration of iron-bearing rocks, such as gneisses, schists, basic lavas, etc., under tropical conditions, resulting in the concentration of hydrated oxides of iron often associated with those of aluminium and manganese. Lateritic caps are wide spread in India.

In India the leading producers of iron ore are Chhattisgarh, Orissa, Goa, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh.

 
RESERVES AND PRODUCTION & DISPATCHES OF IRON ORES IN INDIA
 
Reserves
As per the Survey conducted by the Indian Bureau of Mines (IBM) in April 2000, India had 9919 million tonnes of recoverable reserves of hematite and 3546 million tonnes of magnetite. Zone A comprising of Bihar, Jharkhand and Orissa is the largest haematite ore bearing zone in the country, consisting mainly of medium grade and low grade ore (iron content 65% and below). Chhattisgarh has the largest quantity of high-grade ore reserve (iron content greater than 65%) in the country. Karnataka has the highest reserves of magnetite ore followed by Andhra Pradesh and Goa. The details of recoverable reserves of haematite is as under-
 
Recoverable Reserve of Haematite as on 1.4.2000
 
S.No Zone / State High Grade ore (Fe+65%) Medium grade ore (Fe 62-65%) Low grade ore ( Fe below 62%) Un Classified Other / Not known Blue dust Black Iron Total
 
   1.    Zone A
   Bihar
   Jharkhand
   Orissa
--   
44.04   
547.64   
--   
1794.06   
1857.33   
0.03   
873.09   
507.54   
--   
139.25   
280.83   
--   
1.74   
10.54   
--   
10.57   
0.03   
0.03   
2859.27   
3203.91   
   2.    Zone B
   Chhattisgarh
   Madhya    Pradesh
   Maharashtra

461.24   
--   
7.43   

562.06   
6.23   
123.65   

463.17   
65.20   
43.19   

388.07   
14.93   
33.45   


--   
14.16   
12.17   


28.52   
15.27   
--   

1903.06   
115.79   
219.89   
   3.    Zonc C
   Karnataka
214.86    583.01    78.59    87.76    1.58    0.5    966.30   
   4.    Zone D
   Goa region
0.02    132.75    392.38    33.22    12.97    9.52    580.86   
   5.    Zone E
   Andhra Pradesh
   Rajasthan

23.04   
--   

3.99   
0.26   

28.20   
9.60   

2.66   
1.64   

0.38   
0.15   

--   
--   
58.27   
11.65   
     GRAND TOTAL    1298.27    5023.34    2460.99    981.81    41.41    113.21    9919.03   
 
Production and Dispatches:
Production of Iron Ore (including concentrates) during the year 2003-04 is estimated at 100.6 million tonnes as against 97.0 million tonnes in the previous year. State wise production figures indicate that Karnataka continues to be the leading producing State accounting for 24.25million tonnes (25.1%) of the total production during 2003-04 followed by Orissa with 23.76 million tonnes (23.6%), Chhattisgarh with 20.04 million tonnes (19.9%), Goa with 17.0 million tonnes (16.9%) and Jharkhand with 13.61 million tonnes (13.5%), The remaining production is from Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Rajasthan. Dispatches of Iron Ore (including concentrates) for 2003-04 are estimated at 101.8 million tonnes.

Production and dispatches of Iron Ore from 2001-02 to 2003-04 are given below (Source Indian Bureau of Mines, Nagpur):

 
   Year/Period Production Despatches
Qty. (MT) Value
(Rs. Crore)
Total (MT) For Internal Consumption
(MT)
For Exports (MT)
   2001-02 86.2 2496.92 876 49.8 37.8
   2002-03(P) 97.0 2710.45 971 57.2 39.9
   2003-04(E) 100.6 2806.91 101.8 61.3 40.5
   (P) Provisional                                                                MT - Millon Tonnes
 
IMPORTANT IRON ORE DEPOSITS OF INDIA
Iron ore is the basic resource for a nation’s development. Iron is described as the backbone of civilization. As the major raw material for the iron and steel industry, iron ore is found in four varieties viz., Magnetite, Limonite, Hematite, Siderite. 20% of the iron ore deposits of the world are found in India. Major iron ore deposits of India are given in the Table given below:
 
          Producing Centres                     States
          Durg. Dantewada Districts                     Chhattisgarh
          Sundergarh, Keonjhar, Mayurbhanj Districts                     Orissa
          North Goa Districts                     Goa
          Chickmangalore, Bellari Districts                     Karnataka
 
MAP SHOWING IMPORTANT IRON ORE DEPOSITS OF INDIA
 
1.CHHATTISGARH
Chhattisgarh is the richest State in terms of mineral wealth, with 28 varieties of major minerals, including diamond. Chhattisgarh along with two other Indian States has almost all the coal deposits in India, which led to its ‘power hub’ strategy. All the tin ore is in Chhattisgarh. A fifth of iron ore in the country is here, and one of the best quality iron ore deposits in the world is found in the Bailadila mines in south Chhattisgarh from where it is exported to Japan. Rich deposits of Bauxite, Limestone, Dolomite and Corundum are found in the State. The State is lucky to have large deposits of coal, iron ore and limestone in close proximity, making it the ideal location for the lowest cost of production.

Bailadila range of mines is perched on the southern tip of Chhattisgarh in Dantewada District. The range comprises of 14 iron ore deposits rising to a height of 1260 meters above mean sea level. Bailadila lies in the Survey of India toposheet no. 65F/2 within latitude 18o32'32" North and 19o36'5" North and longitude 81o13' & 81o14'30" East.

"Bailadila" ranges of hills derive its name from the shape of hills. As the hills of the range look like 'the hump of an ox' it's named so by the native inhabitants of this place.

Iron Ore is available in Bailadila area in heavy quantity. Bailadila Iron Ore deposit is renowned in the world for both its quantity as well as quality. The Iron percentage in the Ore is between 60 to 68, which makes Bailadila one among the world's top quality Iron Ore. There are 14 deposits of Iron Ore with an approximate quantity of 3000 Lakh Tonnes. National Mineral Development Corporation Limited is involved in the mining related activities of these Iron Deposits.

The association of very rich and extensive iron ores with hematite quartzite in the Bailadila range has first been made known to the world between 1898-1900 by Mr. P. N. Bose who was the first to do geological mapping of this region. A systematic geological mapping was done later between 1932-38 through which 14 iron ore bearing hills have been chalked out from the range. In view of the urgency of assessment of the mineral potentialities of this region, a separate circle of GSI was formed in December 1958, and in the same year IBM was assigned the job of detailed proving of some of these deposits.

NMDC stepped in the area in the later half of 1961 and since then it is actively engaged in extraction, development and exploration of many deposits of the ranges, namely Deposit-14,5,4 and also 11C & 13.

The Commercial discovery of Bailadila dates back to 1955-56 when Prof. Euemura of Japanese Steel Mills Association, studying the memories of Geological Survey of India, drew the attention of the Japanese Steel Mills to the richness of the vast deposits of iron ore and its proximity to the Eastern Coast of India. Later an agreement was signed with the Japanese Steel Mills in 1960. An approval of the project report prepared by NMDC has been given in 1964 and the Mine Plant has been inaugurated in November 1968.

NMDC is presently operating three iron ore mines vi.z Bailadila Iron Ore Deposit No 14 (commissioned in the year 1968), Bailadila Iron Ore Deposit No. 5 (Commissioned in January 1977) and Bailadila Iron Ore Deposit No. 11-c (Commissioned in June 1987), out of the 14 identified Iron Ore Deposits of the Bailadila range (dantewada.nic.in/nmdc.html).

The estimated reserve of iron ores is about 2336 million tonnes. Bailadila also holds an estimated quantity of 680 lakh tonnes of "Blue Dust", Petetoigation Plant is under consideration of NMDC.

In the Durg districts, the more important deposits of hematite ore are in Dhalli Rajhara; here, rich iron ore deposits are found near Jharandalli and Konde Kasa. The average iron content of the ore is 68 to 69%. The reserves here are estimated to be over 286 million tonnes.

On the border of Durg and Bastar districts G.S.I has discovered sixteen more promising deposits in the Kalwar-Kauchar region. Many of the high grade ore are merely the western extension of the Dhalli-Rajhara iron ore deposits. Here both massive and laminated types of hematite occur in association with the banded hematite quartzites. The Kauchar deposit is a single ore-body on a N-S trending ridge (? 2206) -Kauchar Dongri; it has a strike length of 3.2 km and average width of 200 meters. The ore is of steel grey to brownish grey colour. The average iron content ranges from 55 to 69%.

There are also some amounts of poor grade ore containing less than 55% iron content especially of the earthy varieties. The sp. gravity of the ore is between 4.1 and 4.9 and the phosphorous content of the richer ores (both massive and laminated) is around 0.01% while the mica content is between 0.5 and 2.52% and the sulfur content only in traces.

It is a promising deposit and since its size, quality and easy accessibility are important factors, it is necessary to prove the correct dimensions of this deposit especially in depth, as it is believed that this iron ore body may reasonably be expected to extend down to a depth of 100 meters at least. In other parts of the Durg district, in a hill about 1.6 km, west of Bandhe a 8.8 km long band of hematite is found and another in the Dondi Lohara area. Besides these deposits, lateritic iron ores are present west of Kukral and near Borla, Katalulkassa, Worar and other places and float ore is also found.

 
2. ORISSA

In Orissa, the iron ore deposits occur in the districts of Cuttack, Keonjhar and Sundergarh, Mayurbhanj, Sambalpur, Koraput and Dhenkanal. Of these, the Keonjhar deposit is important. The principal ore is hematite with the iron content ranging from 55 to 69 per cent.

The iron ores are associated with both the banded hematite quartzite (BHQ) and banded hematite jasper. In this State, the most important deposits containing large reserves of high grade ore occur in the Bonai range of hills running through Keonjhar and Sundergarh districts and comprises the well known iron ore deposits of Banspani, Barsua, Bichhakani, Bolani, Joda east, Malangtoli, Makaranacha, Murgabera, Pirpokri, Rajabasa and Thakurani. Mainly steel grey hematite is found in the Malangtoli block in Keonjhar district.

 
3. GOA
Between the Talpona river (Naibhaga) in the NW and Salginim in SE, iron ore and manganese deposits closely associated with the pink phyllitic horizon are found in a 95 km long and 2km wide belt. These pink phyllites resemble the shales in the well known Singhbhum-Keonjhar-Bonai iron ore region. It is a remarkable fact that the iron ore deposits decrease in quality and quantity as one proceeds from north to south in Goa. Thus, near Nuem and Cananquinim banded hematite magnetite quartzites occur as lensoid bodies while the manganese bearing cherts and quartzite occur in narrow bands.

There are also small isolated deposits along the sea coast near Betul and Galogibaga. The richest iron ore deposits in Goa are found between Advalpale and the Madei river. Here massive or bedded or powdery type of hematite is the principal ore with some amount of magnetite, limonite and goethite. South of Costi there are only a few small iron ore deposits usually of poor quality.

According to A.R. Gokulam of the G.S.I., generally, the iron ore deposits occupy the crests and slopes of the hills, hillocks and mounds and higher the hill and steeper the slope, the better is the size of the deposit and the tenor of the ore. The iron ore concentration is also maximum at the apical portions of the hills which are also often the culminations of minor cross folds.

Generally, the surface ore is hard and lumpy followed in depth by the softer, friable and powdery ores consisting mainly of blue dust. The massive ore varies in colour from cherry red to steel grey and the iron content is around 63 % and sp. Gravity is 4.2. This type of ore is, however of only sporadic occurrence. The bedded ore is also of a cherry red to steel grey colour but its sp. gravity is only 3 to .4 and the iron content ranges from 59 to 62 %. A mixed type of ore comprised bands of hematite mixed with laterite is commonly noticed at the surface in many localities but the sp. gravity of the ore is only 2.5 to 3.0 and the iron content between 45 and 50%.

Usually, between the hard lumpy ore at the surface and the powdery ore in the depth there is a thin zone containing laminated ore. Below this zone of powdery ore usually called ‘Blue Dust’. The sp. gravity of the latter is only 2.8 to 3.0 the iron content is rather high ranging from 63 to 67 %. As such, in Goa the powdery ore is usually richer in iron content as compared to the hard lumpy ores occurring near the surface.

According to A.R. Gokuam there are more than thirty important iron ore deposits in Goa which on the basis of their nature, mode of occurrence and origin could be grouped into eight major types such as:

   (a) Bicholim-Pale type
   (b) Sacroda-Pissurlem type
   (c) Codli-Sigao type
   (d) Costi-Quirlapale type
   (e) Barazan-Viliena-Motto type
   (f) Rivona-Columba-Canvorem type
   (g) Netorlim type
   (h) Betul-Nuem type.

The revised estimates of iron ore reserves in Goa are placed at about 884 million tons.

 
4. KARNATAKA
In Karnataka, there are two main types of iron deposits, the lateroid hematitic iron ore concentrations with minor limonite and goethite and magnetite ore deposits. Workable deposits of iron chiefly hematite carrying 55 to 63 percent of iron content with phosphorous between 0.05 and 0.12 percent are known to occur.

Karnataka has the richest resources of iron ores of the order of 1000 million tons of Karnataka and 25000 million tons of magnetic ores. Major deposits occur in Bellary, Chickmagalur and Chitradurga districts. Some of the richest deposits analyzing to more than 62 per cent iron ore occur in Bellary.

 
The more important districts are the following:
 
          Name of district                     Location of iron ore deposits
          Bellary                     Bellary, Hosepet and Sandur
          Bijapur                     Amingarh
          Chickmagalur                     Bababudan hills, Kudremukh, Gangamula
          Chitradurga                     Hiriyur, Sasalu, Vajra
          North Kanara                     Deposits on Goa border and Honavar
          South Kanara                     Puttur taluk , Dharmasthala
          Shimoga                     Siddarahalli, Shankaragudda, Kodachadri
          Tumkur                     Chickanayakanhalli
 
Of these listed, the occurrences of iron ore in the Bellary district are quite important. The Kudremukh deposit on the West Coast in Chickmagalur district is also important because it is intensively of magnetite. Kudremukh means the face of a horse, as the profile of the mountain near Mangalore resembles it. This is no ordinary mountain but a rich lode of iron ore. It is one of the largest iron ore deposits of the world and the largest in Asia. Average daily production of ore is 70,000 tons.

In the Bellary district, within the bounds of the former princely State o Sandur, high grade hematite ores occur in banded hematite quartzites. The ores occur on the tops of a series of ridges. The important sources are Donimalai, Devadari, Kumaraswamy-Kammadheruvu, Kanavehalli, Ramandrug and Timmappanagudi ranges. In Donimalai, laminated hematite ores (biscuity ores) are dominant followed by massive ores. Some amount of specular iron ore, martite and magnetite are also present.

According to G.S.I. the Donimalai deposit is estimated to contain 151.3 million tonnes of ores with Fe content 64 percent and the Ramandrug deposit about 212 million tonnes of iron ors with 62.3 to 62.5 percent iron content while 181.9 million tonnes of iron ores with 64 percent Fe content has been estimated from ore zone ‘C’ of Kumaraswamy deposit.

In the Chickmagalur district, we have one of the most important deposits of iron ore in the Bababudan hills. The chain of hills, shaped like a horse-shoe is about 22 km wide in a east-west direction and 19 km in north-south direction. On the tops of this chain of hills the iron ores, some hundreds of meters thick, occur in discontinuous masses. One of them is the well known Kemmangundi ore field. In the Kalhattigiri region, in the southeastern portion of this chain of hills, the iron ores cover a very wide area. Much of the ore exposed is of high grade, chiefly hematite with some limonite. This ore shows the following range in composition:
 
  Percent (approx.)
Iron 55.11-64.22
Sulfur 0.034-0.052
Phosphorous 0.044-0.057
In the Maland area of this district between Kudremukh and Gangamoola extensive deposits of magnetite ore known to occur at Mathole, Gangrikal and Aroli. Kudremukh in the Aroli Gangamoola range of Western Ghat in Karnataka is known for its wild beauties. The highest peak of this mountain range resembles the face of a horse. Discovery of iron ore deposit in these hill ranges was made by Late Sampath Iyengar, a geologist in the year 1913. The iron ore deposit in Kudremukh was estimated to be around 700 million tonnes. In 1960s National Mineral Development Corporation undertook the preliminary prospecting and investigation work and made an assessment of mineable reserve of 630 million tonnes.

Kudremukh deposit containing 33 percent of Fe is amenable for beneficiation. The deposit has been opened at Malleshwara situated in Mudigin taluk. This deposit is situated 13 km NNE of Kudremukh. The deposit extends for a strike length of 5km. It was developed under India-Iran agreement whereby India was to supply 7.5 million of concentrates analyzing 66.5 percent Fe (tolerance limit+64 %Fe) for a period of 25 years. Due to outbreak of Iran-Iraq War, Iran withdrew the contract although the mine has achieved operational capacity. There is a arrangement to transfer concentrate in slurry for a distance of 66.8 km through pipe line system to Mangalore port.

Kudremukh deposits are known to be one of the largest deposits in the world. On one deposit alone where the mining is carried out at present, reserves of 630 million tonnes of weathered ore and 450 million tonnes of primary ore have been found. Besides, there are other deposits in the vicinity namely Nellibeedu, Gangkrikal, Bababudan etc., with probable reserve of 3000 million tonnes (www.pib.nic.in).
 
5. MAHARSHTRA
Iron ore deposits in Maharashtra occur in Chandrapur, Gadchiroli, Bhandara and Sindhudurg districts. They are mostly concentrated in the Vidarbha region where ore bodies occur as lenses in banded hematite quartzites belonging to ‘Iron Ore Series’. The iron minerals are hematite and magnetite.

In Chandrapur district iron ore deposits occur at Asola, Lohara, Ratanpur and Pipalgaon localities. Out of these the Lohara deposit is the most important followed by Asola and Pipalgaon. In Gadchiroli district iron ore deposits occur in three parallel hill ranges i) Surajagarh hill range, ii) Damkod Wadvi hill range iii) Bhamragarh hill range. Several deposits are present but the deposit occurring in Wureea hill range is very important in nature. The Wureea hill deposit is in the form of a lenticular body associated with banded hematite quartzite and ferruginous phyllites belonging to ‘Iron Ore Series’. The ore which is predominantly hematite, occur as massive, laminated, soft and porous type.

In Gondia tahsil of Bhandara district near Khursipur and Ambetalao titaniferous magnetite ore body containing vanadium occurs in metamorphosed basic and ultrabasic rocks of Amgaon Group. Ore is banded, fine grained, grayish in color and is composed of brown, bluish to dark black crystalline magnetite with minor amounts of sulfides, hematite and goethite. In Sindhudurg district there are several localities where iron ore deposits are found to occur. The ore bodies are associated with Banded hematite quartzites, ferruginous quartzite and ferruginous phyllites which are mostly below thick cover of laterite. Ore from this district is exported to other countries (G.G. Deshpande, Geology of Maharashtra, Geological Society of India, Bangalore, 1998).

 
6. ANDHRA PRADESH
In Andhra Pradesh the iron ore deposits are mainly confined to Rayadurg area in Anantpur district, Bayaram in Khammam district, Gani-Ramallokota and Veldurthi areas in Kurnool district, Gandrai area in Krishna district and around Konijedu in Prakasam district. Dharwar, Cuddapah and Gondwanas are the main units with which iron ore of the States are associated. There are minor lateritic ores derived from Deccan Trap.

In Adilabad district iron-ore occur associated with Upper Gondwana rocks in Sirpur areas whereas banded hematite quartzites are reported from Chityala, Kallada and other places. In Anantpur and Chittoor districts iron-ore occurs associated with the Dharwars. In Khammam and Warangal districts iron ores are associated with Pakhals and also Dharwar strata.

In Krishna and Khammam districts float ores is collected whereas in Kurnool district there are rich hematite concentrations. Magnetite ores through banded hematite quartzites contribute the main ore in Prakasam and East Godavari districts (P.K. Ramam, Geology of Andhra Pradesh, Geological Society of India, Bangalore, 1999).


A Note on Mittal Steel Company N.V. Website http://www.mittalsteel.com

Mittal Steel Company N.V. the world's largest steel producer by volume, and the second largest after Arcelor by turnover. CEO Lakshmi Mittal's family owns 88% of it; Lakshmi Mittal is the fifth wealthiest person in the world. Mittal Steel is based in Rotterdam, in the Netherlands but managed from London by Mittal and his son Aditya. It was formed when Ispat International N.V. acquired LNM Holdings N.V. (both were already controlled by Lakshmi Mittal) and merged with International Steel Group Inc. (the remnants of Bethlehem Steel, Republic Steel and LTV Steel) in 2005.

 
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• 1989 Acquisition of Iron & Steel Company of Trinidad & Tobago
• 1990
• 1991
• 1992 Acquisition of Sibalsa
• 1993
• 1994 Acquisition of Sidbec-Dosco
• 1995 Acquisition of Hamburger Stahlwerke which formed Ispat International Ltd. and Ispat Shipping formed.    Acquisition of Karmet
• 1996
• 1997 Ispat International NV goes public
• 1998 Acquisition of Inland Steel Company
• 1999 Acquisition of Unimétal
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• 2001 Acquisition of ALFASID > Acquisition of Sidex
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• 2004 Acquisition of Polskie Huty Stali, Acquisition of BH Steel, Acquisition of Macedonian facilities from Balkan    Steel, Creation of Mittal Steel and proposed acquisition of International Steel
• 2005 Investment of $9 billion in Jharkhand, India announced
• 2006 Acquisition of Arcelor announced
 
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It employs 179,000 people. Revenue for 2005 was US$28.132 billion (the accounts are prepared in United States dollars). It shipped 49.178 million tonnes of steel during 2005, ahead of Arcelor (45 Mt in 2004), and Nippon Steel (31.3 Mt in 2004). Arcelor however tops Mittal Steel in terms of turnover with an annual turnover of over $37 billion in 2004.

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